The Arctic ice is formed in the Laptev Sea. The sea was named after the Russian polar explorer Khariton Prokofievich Laptev and his cousin Dimitri, who extended their expeditions much further and thus discovered some of the islands lying there. The Laptev Sea lies between Russia and Asia and is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. The permanent ice surface reaches over 700,000 square meters, while the seabed descends a good 3,000 meters. The Laptev Sea is located near the East Siberian Sea, where there are still numerous uninhabited islands such as Belkowski, Jaja, Jarok or Muostach, and to the west the sea borders on the Kara Sea with further permafrost areas. There are very few settlements on the coasts due to the constant cold. One of the better known is the port town of Tiksi.